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The Treasury Green Book and the 5 Case Business Model

First published in 2003 the Green Book has been the central government’s guidance document on the steps and methods necessary for developing, evidence based, government interventions and programmes. Historically it was primarily concerned with the internal workings of government.

However, since its update in 2018 and the publication of the Business Case Guidance for Programmes and Projects it is increasingly becoming a mainstream methodology, that must be followed by any organisation wishing to bid for public funds.

At the heart of the HMT Green Book is the 5 Case Model Business Case. The 5 Case Business Model requires project and programme proposers to consider, the:

  • Strategic Case: Why is the intervention needed? What is the policy context? What is the evidence base? Most importantly you need to prove there is genuine demand for it and have involved stakeholders in the creation of the project idea.
  • Economic Case: This is the heart of the Business Case. You need to undertake a detailed, quantified, evidence based, analysis of the social benefits your project will bring. However, this is not enough. You also need to compare the benefits your idea will bring to the viable alternative approaches. Showing the benefits of your approach is insufficient. You must demonstrate it is the best way forward.
  • Commercial Case: In the Commercial Case you need to demonstrate you have the procurement processes necessary to deliver value for money and you have considered all of the risks. High-value, is the benchmark.
  • Financial Case: Prove you have thought through the finances of the project in detail.
  • Management Case: Prove you have the skills, experience and detailed project plan to deliver what you are proposing. “If successful we will develop a detailed project plan” is not enough. You must include the resources, milestones and deliverables in your full business case.

As the Green Book Business Case Guidance for Projects states “Preparing a business case must never be approached as a ‘writing’ exercise and a hurdle to jump for approval purposes and its use should be considered regardless of the need for external approval.”

At Tenders-UK we have the experience needed to help you through the process of creating a 5 Case Business Model that meets the requirements of the Green Book methodology. We are not just proposal writers. We are strategic thinkers and facilitators.

If you are looking for the source treasury green book and business case guidance document then please see the link below:


If you would like an example 5 Case Model Business Case Template free of charge then please email us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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